ACTIVITY NUMBER: A unique identification assigned to a process that influences the traceability of a food. For example, work order number, purchase order number, and invoice number.

ASN: Advance shipment notice

BATCH/LOT NUMBER: A batch unites products/items that have undergone the same transformation processes. Batch and Lot are considered synonyms.

CONSUMER ITEM: The trade item intended to be sold to the end customer.

CONTROL: An action to identify and correct a problem that occurred during the production of food, without other actions associated with a corrective action procedure (such as actions to reduce the likelihood that the problem will recur, evaluate all affected food for safety, and prevent affected food from entering commerce.)

CRITICAL TRACKING EVENT: A point in the supply chain of a food where certain key data elements would need to be captured for the purpose of enabling traceability.

EXTERNAL TRACEABILITY: External traceability takes place when components of a traceable item are physically handed over from one trading partner (traceable item source) to another (traceable item recipient).

FIXED-WEIGHT: A term used to denote that a product’s weight is constant from case to case or from item to item. It is sometimes known as set weight or fixed measure. A fixed-weight product is typically priced per selling unit rather than per weight.

FOOD: The term ‘‘food’’ means (1) articles used for food or drink for man or other animals, (2) chewing gum, and (3) articles used for components of any such article. It does not include:

  • Food contact substances as defined in section 409(h)(6) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 348(h)(6)), or
  • Pesticides as defined in 7 U.S.C. 136(u).

Examples of food include: Fruits, vegetables, fish, dairy products, eggs, raw agricultural commodities for use as food or as components of food, animal feed (including pet food), food and feed ingredients, food and feed additives, dietary supplements and dietary ingredients, infant formula, beverages (including alcoholic beverages and bottled water), live food animals, bakery goods, snack foods, candy, and canned foods.

GRN® (Global Trade Item Number): The format in which Global Trade Item Numbers (GTINs) must be represented in a 14-digit reference field (key) in computer files to ensure uniqueness of the identification numbers.

GSI System: The specifications, standards, and guidelines administered by GS1.

HAZARD: Any biological, chemical (including radiological), or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of its control.

IDENTIFICATION: The identity assigned to an item or party that is needed to access other relevant information about the item or party.

INTERNAL PROCESS: A series of actions, changes or function(s) within a company or organization that brings about a result.

INTERNAL TRACEABILITY: Internal traceability takes place when a trading partner receives one or several components of traceable items as inputs that are subjected to internal processes, before one or several transformed components or finished products of traceable items are shipped out.

LABEL/CASE MARKINGS: Label/Case Markings A tag, sticker, or printing on product packaging that provides information about the product inside.

LINK: Recording the information necessary to establish the relationship to other relevant information.

LOCATION: A place where a traceable item is or could be located [ISO/CD 22519]. A place of production, handling, storage, and/or sale.

LOGISTIC UNIT: An item of any composition established for transport and/or storage that needs to be managed through the supply chain.

MASTER DATA: Master Data describe each item and party involved in supply-chain processes. Master data are defined as data having the following characteristics:

  • Permanent or lasting nature
  • Relatively static, not being subject to frequent change
  • Accessed/used by multiple business processes and system applications
  • Can either be neutral or relationship dependent.

MONITOR: To conduct a planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether a process, point, or procedure is under control and to produce an accurate record for use in verification.

PACKER: An entity that is responsible for packaging food products into primary and/or secondary containers. This may be done on the field, in a processing facility or independently.

PARTY: A party or location is any legal, functional, or physical entity involved at any point in any supply chain and upon which there is a need to retrieve predefined information. A party is uniquely identified by a GSI Global Location Number.

PREVENTIVE CONTROLS: Those risk-based, reasonably appropriate procedures, practices, and processes that a person knowledgeable about the safe manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of food would employ to significantly minimize or prevent the hazards identified under the hazard analysis that are consistent with the current scientific understanding of safe food manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding at the time of the analysis.

PREVENTIVE CONTROLS QUALIFIED INDIVIDUAL: A qualified individual who has successfully completed certain training in
the development and application of risk-based preventive controls or is otherwise qualified through job experience to develop and apply a food safety system.

PROCESS: A series of actions or steps toward achieving a particular end. Examples of common processes include Production, Transformation, Quality Control, Storage, Transportation, Movement, Recycle, Return, Packing, Receiving, Traceability, and so on.

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION: GS1 Global definition: A piece of information reflecting a characteristic related to an identification number [for example, an expiration date or a product description related to a GTIN].

QUALITY CONTROL OPERATION: A planned and systematic procedure for taking all actions necessary to prevent food from being adulterated.

QUANTITY: A precise number of articles, pieces, or units. Used in conjunction with Unit of Measure.

RECEIPT DATE: GS1 Global definition: Date/time upon which the goods were received by a given party.

RECORD: Act of creating a permanent piece of information constituting an account of something that has occurred.

SSCC (Serial Shipping Container Code): The 18-digit GS1 System Identification Key comprising an extension digit, GS1 Co., Prefix, Serial Reference, and Check Digit used to identify a logistic unit.

SERIAL NUMBER: A code, numeric or alphanumeric, assigned to an item for its lifetime. A unique individual item may be identified with the combined Global Trade Item Number and Serial Number.

SHARE: Act of exchanging information about an entity or traceable item with another Trading Partner.

SHIP DATE: GS1 Global definition: Date on which goods should be shipped or dispatched by the Supplier.

SHIPMENT: An item or group of items delivered to one party’s location at one moment in time that have undergone the same dispatch and receipt processes.

TRACEABILITY: Traceability is the ability to track forward the movement through specified stage(s) of the extended supply chain and trace backward the history, application or location of that which is under consideration (GS1, 2009). [ISO 9001:2000] Traceability is the ability to trace the history, application or location of that which is under consideration.

TRACEABILITY DATA: Any information about the history, application, or location of a traceable item. This may be either Master Data or Transactional Data.

TRACEABILITY ITEM: A physical object where there may be a need to retrieve information about its history, application, or location. The level at which the traceable item is defined within a product packaging or logistical hierarchy is dependent on the industry and degree of control required. Could be tracked, traced, recalled, or withdrawn. Could exist in multiple locations at the same time (for example, if identified at the trade item and batch level). A traceable item may be related to another traceable item. See also definition for process.

TRACING (Tracing Back): The ability to identify the origin attributes, or history of a particular traceable item located within the supply chain by reference to records held. “Tracking back” and “tracking forward” are the preferred terms used in this document.

TRACKING (Tracking Forward): The ability to follow the path of a traceable item through the supply chain as it moves between parties.

TRADE ITEM: Any item (product or service) upon which there is a need to retrieve predefined information and that may be priced, or ordered, or invoiced at any point in any supply chain.

TRADING PARTNER: Any supply-chain partner that has a direct impact on the flow of goods through the supply chain. Examples include 3rd-party logistics provider, manufacturers, retailers, wholesalers, distributors, or operators, and growers.

TRANSFORMATION:  A change to the nature of a traceable item that changes the identity and/or the characteristics of the traceable item. The act of changing the item such as combining ingredients to make a finished product or case picking to create a new pallet. Transformation can be production, aggregation, grouping, splitting, mixing, packing, and repacking traceable items.

TRANSPORTER:  The party that handles and or stores the traceable item from one point to another without transforming the item. Receives, carries, and delivers one or more traceable items. The Transporter may only have “possession, custody, control” of a traceable item, as distinct from ownership.

UNIT OF MEASURE:  The unit of measure relating to a specific quantity.

VALIDATION: That element of verification focused on collecting and evaluating scientific and technical information to determine whether the food safety plan, when properly implemented, will effectively control the identified hazards.

VARIABLE-WEIGHT: A term used to denote that a product’s weight varies from case to case or from item to item. It is sometimes known as random weight, catch weight, or variable measure. A variable-weight product is typically priced on the true weight of the item rather than per selling unit.

VERIFICATION: means those activities, other than monitoring, that establish the validity of the food safety plan and that the system is operating according to the plan.


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